A testing framework, or more particularly a testing automation framework, is an implementation environment for performing automated tests. It is the entire system that will automate the testing. To keep pace with the increasing testing burden, many companies are turning to cloud-based Apps for Android automation testing. This helps to automate scripted tests on a large number of actual devices for thorough testing. Despite the fact that there are several Android testing frameworks to pick from, it’s vital to understand the fundamentals and how each framework works so that the tool you choose may help you fulfill your testing demands and, ultimately, achieve your business goals. In this article, we will go through numerous Android app testing frameworks that are booming in the year 2022.
A glimpse into the Android market
Users expect increased usability, security, and quality from their apps since the mobile application business is so competitive. Smartphone app testing aids in the detection and improvement of a mobile app’s flaws for the intended audience. Due to the expanding digital revolution, companies are increasingly investing in the best mobile testing solutions. There were around 15 billion active mobile devices in 2021, including over 6 billion smartphone users. Mobile devices are predicted to number 18.22 billion by 2025, up 4.2 billion from 2020. To stay on top of their consumers’ expanding needs, businesses must employ the appropriate mobile testing technologies. The most common mobile testing tools are listed below:
Appium is a publicly available, cross-platform mobile testing tool for hybrid and native iOS, and it supports Android versions beginning with 2.3. Appium is a server that runs in the background, similar to Selenium.
This mobile automation testing tool supports the WebDriver library’s numerous programming languages, namely Java, Ruby, C#, and others. Appium uses the WebDriver interface to execute tests.
The UIAutomator library, provided by Google as part of the Android SDK is used by Appium to automate Android. It has control over Safari and Chrome on mobile devices. It may be synced with the TestNG testing framework. In this situation, UI Automator may provide interesting and thorough reports, comparable to those generated by Ranorex.
- Because standard mobile automation APIs are used on all platforms, you do not need to alter or recompile your app in any way
- Any testing framework can be used
- On a separate platform, it’s simple to set up
- Appium is a mobile testing automation tool and supports a number of languages, including Ruby, Java, PHP, Node, and Python
- It is not necessary to install anything on the device
- The Selenium Webdriver JSON wire protocol can still be used
- On a different platform, you don’t need to recompile your mobile app
- It may be combined with other programmes, thanks to Java
- The framework is sometimes slower than other testing tools due to the remote Webdriver reliance, network difficulties, and processing instructions
- Lacking the ability to locate images
- Appium, unlike other commonly used mobile app testing tools, does not have the ability to automatically locate photos. Testers must use screen coordinates to help Appium detect and find photos
- System Support is Limited
- Appium is only compatible with Android 4.2 and later, and it does not support previous APIs. Developers must use Appium in conjunction with Selenium to test APIs older than version 16
Calabash is a multilingual test automation framework for mobile devices. Ruby, Java, Flex, and.NET are all supported. Testers can use APIs to enable native programmes to run on touch screens. This framework includes libraries that allow test scripts to interface with native and hybrid apps programmatically. Cucumber is an Automated User Interface Framework that allows Ruby tests to be developed.
Calabash works by automating UI interactions in mobile apps, such as pushing buttons, entering text, verifying replies, and so on. It may be set up to operate on a variety of Android and iOS devices, providing real-time feedback and validation. Calabash is an acronym for Behavior-Driven Development (BDD). It’s similar to Test-Driven Development (TDD), except that instead of building tests to specify API shape, it documents application behavior. BDD is a collaborative process in which numerous stakeholders contribute to a shared understanding of what needs to be developed.
- It aids in increasing productivity and throughput
- Quality predictability or quality improvement
- Process or product robustness (consistency) is improved
- increased output consistency while lowering labor costs and expenditures
- Writing automation test scripts necessitates proficiency
- Debugging the test script is a major problem here
- In the case of playback techniques, test maintenance is expensive
- If the test script checks more screens, maintaining test data files becomes challenging
It is a Google mobile automation framework that allows users to create and deploy UI tests for Android apps. Since evaluating the user interface of an application is vital before deploying it, app developers and app testers often employ Espresso. Developers can build a scenario in which they interact with a device and record their interactions. They may then create assertions that use snapshots to test the behavior of the app’s UI components. The programme saves the video and creates UI test cases for them to utilize while testing their app.
During development cycles, it enables both black-box testing and individual component testing. Developers may use this comprehensive framework to test both native Android views and hybrid web views.
- The Android IDE, which is the de-facto development environment for Android native and hybrid apps, includes this framework. As a result, developers can quickly set up the framework, create a standalone APK test suite, and begin testing.
- Espresso Android automation is quick to implement, thanks to its unique design. Espresso test automation communicates with no server and runs in parallel with the app to provide developers with quick results (within minutes).
- Espresso test automation provides an integrated way of execution, which increases the test cycle’s reliability.
- Espresso, for example, has a functionality that checks if an object or element is visible on the screen, preventing the test from failing due to “element not detected” and other error messages.
- Espresso only supports Java and JUnit as programming languages. While this is advantageous for Android developers, it has the drawback of limiting your stack.
- Only available in the UI
- If the same UI needs to be tested on both iOS and Android, the tests must be written twice, doubling the time it takes to write and maintain test scripts.
- Complex Espresso teams should have previous expertise in developing and deploying Android apps on emulators.
Apple’s mobile test automation framework for iOS is called XCUITest. Because XCUITest is built into the Xcode IDE, it allows for the quickest possible testing of iOS devices. Using XCUITest is simple for developers because it runs inside the XCode IDE. This is the most well-known mobile testing tool for testing iOS apps. Apple released XCUITest in 2015 as a framework for creating and running UI tests on iOS apps using Swift and Objective C. It is frequently regarded as the finest tool for creating automated testing on native iOS apps. It’s noted for its speed, ease of use, minimal flakiness, and simple test management.
It is not, however, a cross-platform framework, so tests built for it cannot be used to check Android apps. Furthermore, you are unable to construct tests in any programming language (Java, Ruby, or Python). Swift is the only option.
- Creating UI tests for iOS apps is considerably easier now that XCTest is included in the XCode IDE. It also lets teams collaborate on the source code and test code for the app in one location.
- Test execution against iOS devices is quicker than any other UI test automation solution because of the framework architecture.
- XCUITest operates at the object level, decreasing the amount of labor required to maintain applications that are updated.
- When testing on real devices, XCUITest is less reliable, which is inconvenient for smoke and regression testing.
- XCUITest only supports the languages Objective-C and Swift.
- Because XCTest/XCUITest was built for iOS, it can’t help a team testing both iOS and Android devices.
Flutter, from Google is an open-source UI software development kit. It is used to create cross-platform apps from a single codebase for Android, iOS, Linux, macOS, Windows, Google Fuchsia, and the web. It was initially suggested in 2015, and was launched in May 2017.It is a free and open-source UI framework for developing native mobile apps from Google. Flutter enables developers to create mobile apps for both iOS and Android using a single codebase and programming language.
- When the same code is used for both iOS and Android apps, development time is reduced. Flutter’s single codebase not only reduces mobile app development expenses but also accelerates time to market.
- Flutter’s “hot reload” functionality lets developers make changes to code in real time on emulators, simulators, or actual devices. While the programme is running, the updated code is instantly refreshed. Building UIs, adding functionality, and correcting bugs has never been easier thanks to hot reloads.
- Flutter app performance is similar to that of native real-time apps by isolating the UI from native controllers. Flutter apps do not require a bridge to connect with native components, unlike other frameworks.
- Because Flutter is still relatively young, frameworks like Xamarin and React Native have a bigger collection of plugins and UI components.
- Dart is a good programming language, but it is not widely used, and developers are more likely to choose Kotlin or Java.
- Some components are only available for iOS or Android, not both; however, the majority of these components are Android-compatible.
1. What should you look for when choosing a mobile automation tool?
Keep the following aspects in mind before choosing a tool:
- Platform Support: Android or iOS (if appropriate) License Cost
- In the event of an outsourced job, you must consider the client’s preference for a mobile tool.
- The expense of training staff on the tool’s hardware and software needs as well as the mobile automation tool vendor’s support and update policy
2.What factors should you consider while selecting a mobile app automation tool?
Here’s a quick guide to determining which mobile automation technology is suitable for your project. This app is for mobile automation. Determine which tests should be automated.
- Examine the automation tools that fit your automation requirements
- Pilot two of the greatest tools based on your needs and price
- Shortlist 1 tool based on pilot findings
- Other stakeholders should be informed about the automation tools used and their consent should be obtained
- This app is for mobile automation testing. Continue to test automation.
- There are no market-leading mobile testing tools. You must select the most appropriate tool for your mobile test automation project objectives.
3. Why is it critical to select the right mobile tool?
There are several mobile testing tools available. Some are free, while others need subscription. Some of these automation options have been available for some time, while others are very new to the market. Each tool is unique and has its own set of characteristics.
Because of the wide variety of automation tools available, choosing the ideal one for a project may be challenging, and testers frequently end up with tools that do not meet project needs. As a result, selecting the appropriate technology for your project is critical.
In case you are looking for a reliable platform for your mobile testing needs, then we recommend LambdaTest – that’s trusted and tested by over 1 Million+ developers and QAs alike us. LambdaTest – Mobile App testing lets you perform manual and automated app testing across 3000+ real devices and cloud-based Android emulators and iOS simulators.