An abrasive blasting cabinet is a system or machinery used to modify and carry out sandblasting processes. It is used on an object to clean, modify, or abrade the surface by using metal grit, abrasive, or any other blast material, aluminum oxide, glass beads and compressed air. This concludes the whole process of sandblasting.
Sand blasting cabinets are known by many names, including abrasive blast cabinets, dry and wet blasting cabinets, micro-blasters, shot peening, bead blaster and many others. Moreover, various types of abrasive blast cabinets and technologies are available in the market, depending on their usage.
Discussed below are three main types of cabinets:
1. Dry And Wet Blast Cabinets
- Dry Blast Cabinet– Compressed air is used to transport the blast media in dry blast equipment. Two categories of pneumatic or compressed air blast systems include direct pressure and suction. Pressurized air is used in dry blast cabinets to send blast abrasives toward parts via the blasting nozzle. All parts blasting takes place in a safe cabinet, where a built-in or an auxiliary powerful dust collector collects the dust.
- Wet Blast Cabinet– Water is mixed with abrasive media in a 66/33 ratio and this blend is propelled onto the workpieces with the use of compressed air. The water/media mix can be kept agitated to avoid deposit and clogging of material by the use of a slurry pump or agitator. When stripping or washing a part composed of major metals and toxic compounds, wet sandblasting or liquid blasting can decrease the dirt produced by sandblasting by over 90%.
2. Suction Blast Cabinets
The venturi siphon effect is used in vacuum blasters to introduce the abrasive into a pressurized jet of air, water, or fluid. In short, suction blast cabinets use the technology involved in the venturi principle.
These blast cabinets are perfect for low-volume applications, simple washing tasks, and periodic routine maintenance.
Whenever the device is in use, a foot pedal or trigger pistol releases pressurized air into the pistol, creating a vacuum that pulls and ejects abrasive out onto the workpiece. As the airflow travels throughout both, the suction created pushes all media that lays inside from the hopper into the air stream because the air jet’s size is smaller and the diameter is half that of the nozzle’s inner one. A low media velocity range exists between the nozzle and the workpiece (the length is between 4-14 inches). Since blasting media are in the bucket, the suction mechanism operates properly and can blast constantly. In a closed system, this device receives input from the bottom of the cabinet.
3. Pressure Blast Cabinets
Suction systems are substantially less intense than pressure blast cabinets, which offer faster cleaning rates (4x faster). For high-volume applications and forceful blast washing, they are indicated. This is because, as opposed to a suction system, a pressure vessel of higher velocity is used to force the media into the nozzle.
A high-velocity, direct-pressure flow of abrasive material is directed at a material using the force of pressurized compressed air cabinets. It offers the force and velocity required for industrial blasting and stripping off coatings. The pop-up valve is used to seal the pressurized vessel so it can build up its pressure; the metering valve is used to control the amount of media entering the push line (where it mixes up with compressed air and gets propelled at high velocity out of the nozzle).
Uses of Abrasive Blasting Cabinets
Sand Blasting Cabinets are used for various purposes, including surface preparation of parts prior to a coating process, minor part cleaning, stripping, and etching. It is also perfect for touch-up production parts, small manufacturing, prototyping or short runs, and bespoke work in equipment shops, garages, and bodywork shops. It is used in various processes, including:
- Surface Engineering
- Surface Profiling
A sandblasting machine has many industrial purposes and is used for different industrial and manufacturing purposes. It is used for refurbishing by removing old paint and contaminants prior to recoating them (for instance, a bridge, a loader, a heavy vehicle, etc.).
In addition, this equipment is frequently used to remove pollutants like paint, rust, and similar contamination from metallic surfaces.